Showing posts with label Malta. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Malta. Show all posts

Saturday, 28 August 2021

Edward John Bicknell, Marcella Jones & Harry Babb

Portsmouth Cathedral
cc-by-sa/2.0 - © N Chadwick - geograph.org.uk/p/6829155

Edward John Bicknell married Marcella Jones, eldest daughter of David Jones and Johannah Anne O'Callaghan, at St Jude's ChurchSouthsea on 12 Dec 1906. Among the witnesses was Marcella's younger sister, Helena Jones. At the time of his marriage to Marcella, Edward John Bicknell's rank was Corporal RGA (Royal Garrison Artillery), then stationed at Southsea Castle. On the marriage certificate, Bicknell's father is listed as Edward Bicknell, a farmer. 

Their only child, David Nicholas Bicknell was born on 20 Jan 1909, at 15 Gold Street, Southsea and baptised, on 10 Feb 1909, at The Anglican Cathedral of St Thomas of Canterbury, known simply as Portsmouth Cathedral

On 17 Dec 1895, Edward John Bicknell, listed originally as aged 14 years, 11 months (although the 14 appears to have been over-written as 15 on the 2nd page), from Withycombe [Withycombe Raleigh], Exmouth, Devon, formerly a Telegraph Messenger, had enlisted for Long Service in the Royal Artillery, at Slough, Bucks. The name and address of his next of kin was given as Mrs F E Palmer, 18 Hencroft Street, Sough, Bucks. In 1901, there was an Elizabeth F Palmer (60) Tailoress, from Withycombe, Devon at that address. 

In 1891, as Edward Jno Bricknell (10), at Hencroft Street, Upton with Chalvey, Eton, Buckinghamshire, with Henry Palmer (42) Butler domestic and Elizabeth F Palmer (54) from Withycombe, Devon, he's described as their nephew.

Records show that Henry Palmer had married Elizabeth Fanny Bicknell, at St Margaret's, Westminster, London, in 1873. In 1881, they were living at Church End, Tempsford, Biggleswade, Bedfordshire, where Henry was Under butler. Elizabeth Bicknell, listed in Withycombe Rawleigh in 1841 and 1851, bap. as Elizabeth Nanny Bicknell on 5 Jan 1834, had a brother named Edward, born 1830. However, he died in 1870, so cannot be the boy's father.

Fort Rowner-Gosport
cc-by-sa/2.0 - © Colin Babb - geograph.org.uk/p/704877

When he enlisted in 1895, Edward John was 5' 1⅝' tall, weighed 98lbs, had a fresh complexion, hazel eyes and dark brown hair. He was sent to Fort Rowner, Gosport on 21 Dec 1895. Initially passed as fit, he spent 29 days in hospital from 5 Feb 1896 to 4 Mar 1896, whatever he was suffering from, referred to only by the initials V.D.H., it was of unknown cause and he was discharged on 7 Mar 1896, as "Not being likely to become an efficient soldier."

On 19 Sep 1900, in London, at 18 years and 9 months, Edward John Bicknell, once again enlisted in the Royal Artillery. The record, again, says that he was from Withycombe, Exmouth, Devon. Was he cured of his previous ills, or was he hopeful that nobody would tie the two together (which they don't seem to do)? 

There are many people named Edward Bicknell, in Withycombe, going right back to the 17th Century. None of them were farmers. And I can find no birth, nor baptism for an Edward John Bicknell, in 1881, anywhere near the area. The closest is an illegitimate birth of an Edward Bicknell in St Thomas, Devon (under which Withycombe would fall), in 1879. That child, born 19 Nov 1879, in the Village, Withycombe Raleigh, was the son of Rose Creasley Bicknell, Domestic Servant, Cook. No father listed. His birth was registered by his mother, on 9 Dec 1879 and curiously the name of the deputy registrar on the certificate was Edward John Carter. Is that where the Edward John came from?

As yet, I haven't been able to establish whether there is any link between Elizabeth Fanny Bicknell and the boy's mother, Rose Creasley Bicknell. 

All that and naming their son only after his maternal grandfather and uncle and not after his father, leads me to think that Bicknell had no idea who his father was and, as is often done, simply made one up for the marriage certificate.

Leith Fort flats, North Fort Street
cc-by-sa/2.0 - © kim traynor - geograph.org.uk/p/2623474
The flats were to be demolished, but the wall and remnants of the old fort were to remain.

In 1901, Edward John Bicknell (19) Gunner Royal Artillery, was listed on the census at Leith FortNorth Fort StreetLeith, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Tigné Barracks, before its demolition in 2001. Image: Billy Shewring, CC BY-SA 3.0
Parts of The Point Shopping Mall include architectural elements from the former Tigné Barracks.

In 1911, Sergeant Edward John Bicknell (29), from Exmouth, Devon, was listed on the census of Overseas Establishments with 96th Company RGA (Royal Garrison Artillery) at Fort Tigné, Malta. Also listed on the census there at that time are wife, Marcella Bicknell (26) and son, David Nicholas Bicknell (2).

96th Company, I believe, remained in Malta for the duration of World War I. 

Edward John Bicknell was Mentioned in Despatches at least once.

On 27 Oct 1919, Edward John Bicknell, then a Battery Sergeant Major at Sandown Barracks, Sandown, Isle of Wight, filed for divorce from Marcella, citing her adultery with Co-respondent, Harry Babb, a Fitter in His Majesty's Dockyard at Portsmouth, with whom she was allegedly residing at 34, Castle Road, Southsea. The final decree was granted on 29 Sep 1920 and Harry Babb was ordered to pay the costs of £63 18s 4d (around £2,900 in 2021).

Marcella Bicknell married Henry Babb in the 4th quarter of 1920, in Portsmouth.

Babb was no easier to pin down than her first husband. The only relevant birth of a Harry Babb, in the 4th quarter of 1894, is in Barnstaple, Devon, with his mother's maiden name given as Ware. There was a marriage of an Eli Francis Babb and Annie Ware on 21 Feb 1880, at St Martin-in-the-Fields, in The Strand, London. Harry was baptised on 25 Jan 1895 at Holy Trinity Church, Barnstaple and the baptism record gives his parents as Levi Frank and Annie Babb, with his father's occupation listed as 'Boots' at the Fortescue Hotel

The word came from, ‘boot boys’, an occupation in the 1830s and 40s requiring young men to clean the boots of hotel guests. Later, the occupation had become simply known as ‘boots’, and duties included odd-jobs around the hotel. 

In 1901, Levi F Babb (43) Hotel servant (boots) from Somerset (Eli Frank Babb was baptised in Williton, Somerset in 1857); Annie (42), Levi F (18) born in London, John (14), Ellen E (11), Harry (6), Rose (4), Charley (3) and William G (2) were living at 2, Higher Church Street, Barnstaple, Devon

In 1920 and 1921, records show that Sergeant Major Edward John Bicknell was a member of Sandown Masonic Lodge on the Isle of Wight. 

Edward J Bicknell also remarried, to Ida G Priestley, on 25 Mar 1921, on the Isle of Wight. Ida Gertrude Priestley (b. 31 Dec 1891), was the daughter of Thomas F and Sophia C Priestley. Her father was a Yacht steward. Her mother, Sophia, was from Jersey, Channel Islands. In 1901, the family address was Grocer's Shop, 62, West Street, Ryde, Isle of Wight (now a branch of The Co-operative Food). In 1911, Ida Gertrude Priestley (20), had been employed as a Lady's Maid to Mrs Winifred Walker at 10 Marmion Road, Battersea, London.

Edward John Bicknell was discharged from the Army on 18 Sep 1921, at Dover, under Paragraph 392 (xxi) of the King's Regulations - the end of a period of engagement. He was awarded a pension of 51½d per day for life from 19 Sep 1921. His address on discharge was 177, Filbert Street, Leicester.

But Edward John Bicknell of 4 Burton Street, Leicester, Bank Messenger, died on 21 Apr 1922, at Leicester Royal Infirmary from shock following an operation, having been diagnosed with stomach cancer 5-6 months previously. He was 40. His death was registered by P H Priestley, Brother-in-law (Ida's younger brother, Percy H Priestley, born 1895) of 18 Hartington Rd, Leicester.

It would appear that Ida G Bicknell remarried to Thomas A Brennan, in Southampton, in 1923. In 1939, she was living at 66 Shakespeare Avenue, Hillingdon with two daughters, born 1924 and 1927. She is listed as married, but her husband is not at home. Ida died, in Uxbridge, in 1942, aged 50.

In 1939, Harry Babb (b. 17 Nov 1894), Marine Engineer, Marcella Babb, David N Bicknell and a lodger were living at 10 Wilberforce Road, Portsmouth.

Marcella Babb of 1 Festing Grove, Southsea, died on 9 Oct 1963, at 80.

Henry Babb, also of 1 Festing Grove, Southsea, died on 19 Nov 1967. 

David Nicholas Bicknell never married. He died of a cardiac arrest on 22 Jan 1987, two days after his 78th birthday. The retired production controller still lived at 1 Festing Grove, Southsea. His place of birth quoted on his death certificate was India. The records show that he was, in fact, born in Southsea, so I wonder if his father spent time in India while he was growing up. 

Festing Grove, Southsea
cc-by-sa/2.0 - © Kate Jewell - geograph.org.uk/p/3319369

Friday, 30 July 2021

George Burt and Fanny Jerwood

Tiverton : St Peter's Church
cc-by-sa/2.0 - © Lewis Clarke - geograph.org.uk/p/1654824

George Burt married Fanny Jerwood on 25 Dec 1884 at St Peter's Church, Tiverton. George Burt's Rank or Profession was given as Sailor. Fanny Jerwood was the daughter of John Jerwood (b. 1830), Labourer and his wife Sarah Davey (who had also married at St Peter's on 31 May 1853). George Burt's father is listed on the marriage certificate as William Burt, Labourer, however, this looks like an error as records suggest George's father was Edward Burt. As his father had died when George was two, he would never have known him.

On 26 Nov 1837, Edward Burt (b. 1816), son of Richard Burt, had married Mary Ann Prescott (b. 1821), daughter of John Prescott and Ann Warren, also at St Peter's Church, Tiverton. In 1841 they were living in Bampton Street, Tiverton with son George Burt (b. 1840). By 1851, Edward Burt (34) Labourer and Mary Ann (30), had added Edward (b. 1842), John (b. 1846), Richard (b. 1848) and William (b. 1851). Living with them was Mary Carter (71) Lodger. 

In 1859, the son George born in 1840, died, aged 19.

George Burt, born 1863, was actually registered as Sidney George Burt.

Their father, Edward Burt, then died, in 1866, in Tiverton, aged 50. 

In 1870, listed simply as George Burt (Sidney is never used again), son of a widow from Bampton Street, he was registered at Heathcote School.

In 1871, Mary Ann Burt (50) Widow, Seamstress, was still living in Bampton Street with her children: John (25) Mason's Labourer, Lucy (19) Lace Hand in Tiverton Factory, Charlotte (17) Laundress, James (11) and George (7), both at School. Emily Peters (19) also Lace Hand in Tiverton Factory and her son Berty Peters (2) were Lodging with them. Mary Ann Burt died in 1877, aged 56.

And so, George Burt, born 4 Nov 1863, enlisted in the Royal Navy, at 15, as a Boy 2nd Class on 8 Apr 1879. He served until 1 Nov 1901 and joined the Royal Fleet Reserve on 18 Aug 1902. He was brought back into service on 2 Aug 1914 until 18 Jul 1917, although at shore establishments HMS Vivid (II and III). 

HMS Superb (1875)

In 1881, George Burt (17) Boy 1st Class was with the 1st Class Iron Screw Ship HMS Superb (1875), moored in Valletta (Grand Harbour), Malta.

George and Fanny's only child, Charles Edward Burt, was born on 4 Dec 1887.

In 1891, Fanny Burt (27) with son Charlie (3), were living at 150 Pembroke Street, Devonport, while George was with HMS Amphion (1883) in the Pacific.

Young Charlie was then enrolled at Heathcote School in 1894 and at that time, his mother's address was Melbourne Street, Tiverton, even though George was predominantly in Devonport in 1894, first with HMS Himalaya (1854) and then at HMS Vivid II, joining HMS Grafton (1892) on 23 Oct 1894.

In 1901, George Burt (38), now a Leading Stoker, was again at HMS Vivid II, before being pensioned on 1 Nov that year. Fanny (37) was living at 2, Wellbrook Street, Prospect Place, Tiverton, with Charles (13) now a Silk lace maker and Sarah Jerwood (70) Widow, Boarder (Fanny's mother.)

Sarah Jerwood having died in 1910, in 1911, George Burt (48) Grocer and dealer, wife Fanny (47) Assisting in the business and son Charles Edward Burt (23) Lace machine hand, were living at 24 Wellbrook St, Tiverton.

George Burt died in Tiverton in 1937, aged 73.

Fanny Burt died in 1938, aged 74.

Tiverton: Wellbrook Street
cc-by-sa/2.0 - © Martin Bodman - geograph.org.uk/p/1993212

Friday, 23 July 2021

Cyril Burrows and Lilian May Manley

Devonport Dockyard - the ropewalk
cc-by-sa/2.0 - © Chris Allen - geograph.org.uk/p/3074721

Lilian May Manly, daughter of William Manley and Jessie Hammacott, married Cyril Burrows, son of Henry Burrows and Mary Cock, in Devonport in 1921.

Cyril's parents had married, in Bodmin, in 1895. Mary Cock, daughter of Johnathan Cock and Mary Phillips, was baptised on 21 Aug 1871, in Luxulyan, Cornwall. Henry Burrows, born 13 Dec 1873, was a Blacksmith, listed as born in Whitehouse, Bodmin, Cornwall. Henry Burrows joined the Royal Navy as an Armourer on 19 Apr 1893. Exactly the same career path as Lilian's father.

On 9 Mar 1898, until 15 Dec 1899, Henry Burrows was assigned to HMS Hibernia (1804). Hibernia was flagship of the British Mediterranean Fleet from 1816 until 1855, then she became the flagship for the Royal Navy's base at Malta, stationed in Grand Harbour. On the English 1911 Census, Cyril Burrows is listed as "Malta Resident". What they mean is, he was born in Malta

In 1901, the family were living at 64, Admiralty Street, Devonport, but in 1911, while Mary and the children were residing at 9 Highland Terrace, St Budeaux, Devonport, Henry Burrows was with HMS Monmouth (1901), of the China Squadron, at Colombo (Ceylon, now Sri Lanka). 

Henry Burrows was Invalided on 13 Apr 1916 with the reason given as paralysis agitans, a less common name for Parkinson's disease

In 1939, we find Cyril Burrows (b. 2 May 1899) Inspector Of Shipwrights, with wife Lilian and son Cyril Maynard Burrows (b. 24 Apr 1921) Apprentice Shipwright, living at 35 Oakwood Road, Portsmouth. Cyril's Admiralty appointment was reported in the Portsmouth Evening News of 21 July 1939.

Cyril Burrows died, in Portsmouth, in 1979, aged 80.

Lilian May Burrows died, in Portsmouth, in 1989, at 90.

Cyril Maynard Burrows died, also in Portsmouth, in 2001, also aged 80.

Wednesday, 21 July 2021

John Martin Mullarkey and Elsie Aitchinson

Church of St Jude, Plymouth
cc-by-sa/2.0 - © N Chadwick - geograph.org.uk/p/5813993

John Martin Mullarkey, son of Anthony Joseph Mullarkey and Maria Gloyne, married Elsie Aitchinson (b. 7 Feb 1890), daughter of John George Aitchinson and Emma Bolt, at St Jude's Church, Plymouth on 9 Jul 1918.

Elsie's parents had married, on 29 Jun 1885, at Charles Church, Plymouth. John George Aitchinson of 16 Guldford Street, Plymouth was a Shipwright, son of John George Aitchinson, Petty Officer RN. Emma Bolt was from a few doors down at 10 Guildford Street and her father, John Bolt, was a Shoemaker.

Elsie was baptised, as an adult, on 19 Nov 1905, at Charles Church, Plymouth.

In 1911, the family was living at 59 Knighton Road, Plymouth, with John George Aitchinson (50) employed as a Shipwright at H M Dockyard, wife Emma (52) and both Elsie (21) and her younger sister Lilian (17) described as Tailorists.

John Martin Mullarkey (20) had enlisted in the Royal Navy on 19 Jun 1909 and in 1911, was bobbing about in Malta Harbour on HMS Medea

HMS Tiger in 1917

On 31 May - 1 Jun 1916 John Martin Mullarkey was serving as a Leading Stoker on HMS Tiger at the Battle of Jutlandthe largest naval battle of the First World War. Tiger was hit a total of 18 times during the battle, suffering 24 men killed and 46 wounded. John Martin Mullarkey stayed with Tiger until 30 Sep 1921.

Spoiler alert: John is the first of three family members (that I know of), all from the same street, to have been at the Battle of Jutland. All three survived.

After leaving the Royal Navy on 1 Apr 1928, John Martin became a Merchant Seaman. John's naval record says that he had a scar on his left thigh (inside) and a heart tattoo on his right forearm. His Merchant Navy record states that the top of his left index finger was crushed. It doesn't say when, where or how. 

John and Elsie Mullarkey had three children:
  1. John George Anthony Mullarkey b. 1 Oct 1920. John George Anthony Mullarkey married Lilian K Clarke in 1958. Born Lilian Kathleen May Hood on 18 Apr 1914, Lilian was probably a widow at the time of this marriage. She had previously married Herbert J Clarke in 1933 and potentially brought with her four children from this marriage. John George Anthony Mullarkey of 15 Dundas Street, Stoke, Plymouth, died on 8 Nov 1974. Lilian Kathleen May Mullarkey died on 25 Jun 1991.
  2. Lilian Kathleen Mullarkey b. 15 Oct 1922. In 1945, Lilian Kathleen Mullarkey married William George Matthews. They appear to have had one child later that year. Lilian Kathleen Matthews died in 1996.
  3. Martyn Mullarkey b. 15 Aug 1930. In 1951, Martyn Mullarkey married Margaret A Pepper and they appear to have one child in 1952. Martyn Mullarkey died, in Plymouth, in 2005.
In 1939, living at 54 Ocean Street, Plymouth, John M Mullarkey's occupation is described as "Greaser Cable Ship Maker Louisa Mackay" (Louisa Mackay was the name of his ship). Son John G A was a Turner And Fitter Apprentice; Lilian K a Shop Assistant and Martyn was at school. Living with them was John G Aitchinson, Retired Shipwright, Widowed (who died in 1941). 

Elsie Mullarkey died in Plymouth, in 1963, aged 73.

John Martin Mullarkey died the following year in 1974.

Anthony Joseph Mullarkey and Maria Gloyne

Wyndham Street West, Plymouth
cc-by-sa/2.0 - © Derek Harper - geograph.org.uk/p/1777663
With the spire of the 
Roman Catholic cathedral of St Mary & St Boniface

Anthony Joseph Mullarkey, son of Martin Mullarkey and possibly Catherine Loughlin, married Maria Gloyne, daughter of Samuel Pascoe Gloyne and Emma Jane Coombes, on 20 Nov 1887 at the Roman Catholic cathedral of St Mary & St Boniface, Plymouth. On his Royal Marines record, Anthony Mullarkey (b. 5 Dec 1864), said he was from Garston, Liverpool. He had enlisted, in Liverpool, on 5 Jun 1883, his previous job being a Labourer and professed to be Roman Catholic. However, in 1881, Anthony Mullarkey (16) General Labourer, had been boarding at 8, Hughes Street, Garston, along with his father, Martin Mullarkey (40) and Michael Mullarkey (7). All three were said to be from Ireland.

Anthony Joseph Mullarkey and Maria Gloyne had three children:

  1. John Martin Mullarkey b. 10 May 1890
  2. Anthony Charles Mullarkey b. 12 Jan 1893
  3. Kathleen Mullarkey b. 17 Jan 1896
All three were baptised, on 1 May 1896, at St Paul's, East Stonehouse - The Anglican Church, situated at the southern end of Durnford Street. The family's address on these baptism records was listed as 8 Admiralty Street, East Stonehouse, with their father's rank listed as Private RMLI.

Victualling yard at the Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda
Captain-tucker, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

On 20 Dec 1895, Anthony had joined HMS Terror (1856) (a 16-gun iron screw floating battery launched in 1856. She became the base ship at Bermuda in 1857), from which he was Discharged Dead (at 32) on 2 Dec 1896. 

In 1901, Maria Mullarkey (36), Seamstress, Widow, was still living at 8, Admiralty Street, East Stonehouse with John (11), Charles (8) and Kathleen (5).

In 1911, and still at 8, Admiralty Street, East Stonehouse, Maria Mullarkey (48) was in receipt of a pension from the Admiralty. Anthony Charles Mullarkey (18) Bugler RMLI was home on leave and Kathleen Mullarkey (15) was an apprentice tailoress to a Military Tailor. John Martin Mullarkey (20) was serving with the Royal Navy on HMS Medea (HMS Medea (1888) was a Marathon-class second class cruiser launched in 1888 and sold in 1914), anchored in Malta Harbour.

Maria Mullarkey died in East Stonehouse in 1924, aged 61.

Wednesday, 7 July 2021

William George Beamer and Elsie May Carver

HMS Impregnable in the Hamoaze off Devonport Dockyard

William George Beamer, second son of Alfred Beamer and Mary Ann White, at age 16, in 1901, was a member of the crew of HMS Impregnable the 1st Rate (Training Ship For Boys), in the HamoazeDevonport off MakerSt Germans, Cornwall. After spending nineteen years in the reserve fleet at Devonport, HMS Impregnable became the Royal Navy's second boys' training ship at Devonport in 1862. (Regular readers might remember that my great-grandfather, David Jones, had served on the Navy's first boys' training ship, HMS Implacable).

Having signed up for a further 12 years in the Royal Navy, on 4 Feb 1903, William was discharged, invalided, on 8 Jun 1905. Then on 9 Sep 1905, he enlisted in the British Army in the Devonshire Regiment. One wonders what condition was classed as invalid for the Navy, but still fit for the Army.

Triq il-Fortizza - L-Inhawi ta' Pembroke Frank Vincentz, CC BY-SA 3.0

So, next we find William George Beamer (26), in 1911, with the 2nd Battalion Devonshire Regiment, stationed at Saint Georges Barracks, Malta. (Part of the Pembroke Army Garrison, at Pembroke, Malta, not far from St. Julian's.) (And this is the second relative I've found stationed in Malta in 1911.)

William George Beamer married Elsie May Carver at the Anglican Church of the Holy Trinity, which was located in Southside Street/Friars Lane, Barbican, Plymouth, on 17 May 1916. This church no longer exists because it was was destroyed in the Second World War and never rebuilt or replaced. 

Elsie May Carver, born on 22 Nov 1894, had been baptised on 16 Dec 1894 at Holy Trinity Church and, was the daughter of Charles Frederick Carver from Clerkenwell, London and Frances Rundle, native of Plymouth. (She was Frances Foster at the time of their marriage, so may have been a widow. If she's related to the Rundle clan in Cornwall - not a great stretch from Plymouth - then we've just gone round in yet another great big circle.) In 1911, the family, including Elsie May (16), had lived at Artizans Dwellings, Notte Street.

William George Beamer was the recipient of a Silver War Badge, having been discharged from the Machine Gun Corps on 30 Mar 1917, under King's Regulation 392 (xvi) “No longer physically fit for war service". 

"He has a Ministry of Pensions record card which shows him as 22105 MG, residing at 13 Walson Rd, Plymouth. He was discharged on 30.3.17. Cause - deafness. He was also entitled to the Silver War Badge number 197170."

(The Silver War Badge was designed to be worn on civilian clothes after early discharge from the army. The accompanying certificate will have read, "Served with honour and was disabled in the Great War. Honourably discharged on ...")

Elsie's younger brother, Charles Frederick Carver (b. 1898), 5th (Prince of Wales's) Battalion (Territorials), Devonshire Regiment, son of Charles F. and Frances Carver, of 5, Artizan's Dwellings, Notte St., Plymouth, was killed in action on 20 Jul 1918 and is buried at Marfaux British Cemetery, France. 

In 1939, William G Beamer, Skilled Labourer HM Dockyard, wife Elsie M Beamer and John F Carver (b. 1902), Road Repair Labourer (Elsie's brother), were still living at 5 Artizans Dwellings, Notte Street, Plymouth - buildings in that street were destroyed in the Second World War and demolished. 

William George Beamer, once more of 5 Artizans Dwellings, Notte Street, died on 1 Jan 1956 and left £605 4s 10d to his widow, Elsie May Beamer. 

Elsie May Beamer died in the 4th quarter of 1973, aged 79.

Please expect changes to these pages from time to time as we find new data or new records become available. You may like to use Follow That Page, a change detection service that sends you an email when web pages have changed.

If you're related to any of the people written about, I'm guessing you'll recognise them from the surnames. If you are, do please get in touch.